Suck It: The Ins and Outs of Mouth Pipetting

73

If you ever find yourself working in an infectious disease laboratory, whether it’s of the diagnostic or research variety, the overarching goal is not to put any microbes in your eye, an open wound or your mouth. Easy enough, right? Wear gloves, maybe goggles, work in fume hoods and don’t mouth pipette. When working with pathogenic bacteria and viruses, priority number one is Do Not Self-Inoculate.

This is obvious for anyone who has worked in a shiny biology or chemistry lab or seen an episode of CSI: Crime Scene Investigation (we’re all friends here, just admit it), but one of the most commonly used pieces of equipment in labs prior to the 1970s was the leading cause of laboratory-derived infections: the honorable pipette. How could that be possible, you ask? By using one’s oral cavity with the pipette to measure and transfer liquids.

Today our manual pipettes are rather sophisticated, plastic-y devices perfectly calibrated for moving precisely exact milliliters, microliters and picoliters of valuable solution from one vessel to another, whether it’s of a urine sample, some spare radioactive material you have lying about or toxic solvents. But before the development of cheap mechanical pipettes in the ’70s, using your mouth to pipette solutions was more than a common sight, it was a way of the lab.

Former Centers for Disease Control (CDC) parasitologist, Dr. Mae Melvin (Lt), examines a collection of test tubes while her laboratory assistant mouth pipettes a culture to be added to these test tubes. Source: David Senser/CDC.

Don’t worry, reader, I heard you tentatively whisper, “just what exactly is mouth pipetting, dare I ask?”

Like so: insert an open-ended glass capillary tube into your mouth. Place the opposite, tapered end of the tube into a solution of your choice. Microbial stews, blood, cell culture, it is totally your call. With a method that carefully mimics the sucking of a straw, draw a solution upwards through your man-made pipette to your desired volume using the tension created by the reduced air pressure – yes, suction! Maintain the tension with your mouth. Do not suck too hard and inadvertently slurp the solution into your mouth. Careful now. Gently move the pipette end from one vessel and release your precious cargo into yet another vessel.

That is mouth pipetting.

A wonderful demonstration of mouth pipetting by Dr. Armand Frappier, a microbiologist and expert on tuberculosis. Look closely: you can see him draw a dark liquid slowly towards his mouth. What could it be? Soda, a culture of TB, serum for cell cultures? You can watch the entire video clip that this GIF is based upon here. Source: Musée Armand Frapper.

The sparsity of history on pipetting techniques (itself a shocking shortcoming, I’m sure you’ll agree), forbids us from generalizing the prevalence of this phenomena. But we do know that it was the source of a ridiculous number of accidents, whether swallowing a corrosive or toxic substance or an infection with one’s research material  (1). A survey of 57 labs in 1915 found that 47 infections  were associated with workplace practices and more than 40% of those were attributed to the practice of mouth pipetting. A longitudinal study of 921 workplace laboratory infections from 1893 and 1950 found that 17% were due to “oral aspiration through pipettes or to splashes of culture fluids into the mouth (2).”

Infection through the use of one’s oral cavity was such an occupational hazard that it warranted an article, “The Hazards of Mouth Pipetting,” from two gentleman working for the U.S. Army Biological Laboratories. In 1966 they wrote,

although the use of pipettes in the early chemistry laboratories undoubtedly led to accidental aspiration of undesirable toxic and poisonous substances, the first recorded laboratory infection due to mouth pipetting occurred in 1893 … [with] the case of a physician who accidentally sucked a culture of typhoid bacilli into his mouth …

compared with the equipment and procedures required to avoid other types of microbiological laboratory hazards, the method of avoiding pipetting hazards is so elementary, so simple, and so well-recognized that it seems redundant to mention it [emphasis added by author]. However, continued accidents and infections in laboratories illustrate, even today, that there is a lack of acceptance of the simple precautionary measured needed (2).

By the 1970s, mouth pipetting had fallen out of favor as swanky, mechanically adjustable and cheap pipettes flooded the market (3). They were not only infinitely safer but also far more accurate. Instead of drawing a semi-approximate volume of solution with the imperfect measuring device that is your mouth, standardized and calibrated pipettes were available that could zip up a solution to one’s desired volume. More precision. Better experimental results. Less contamination. More ergonomic. Fewer infections. Nowadays, mouth pipetting is explicitly banned from laboratories.

A woman mouth pipetting to select specimens of ectoparasites. Source: National Library of Medicine

And, indeed, you might think that this old school technique is thankfully old news and good for a giggle but mouth pipetting is still practiced in some countries. A study looking at the lab practices and biosafety measures of Pakistani lab technicians found that mouth pipetting was reported by 28.3% technicians (4). This paper was published just last year, in August of 2012. Another study in 2008 found that Nigerian technicians working in clinical laboratories were not only improperly vaccinated against many of the preventable diseases that they were testing for (!) as well as eating and drinking in the lab but 1 in 10 also reported mouth pipetting (5).

Lest you think this is just happening in developing countries, be rest assured that American teenagers and young adults will always find a creative way to  jeopardize their health. In 1998, a 19-year-old nursing student in Pennsylvania was  hospitalized for several days following infection with a unique strain of Salmonella paratyphi she was working with in a lab; the case report strongly suggests that mouth pipetting was the culprit behind this particular microbial misadventure (6).

Another article from 1995 assessing lab accidents found that 13% of laboratory-acquired infections were a result of mouth pipetting. That’s 92 accidents attributed to someone in a lab deliberately putting a pipette or capillary tube into their mouth and sucking up some solution laden with microbes (7). Clearly, we still have a way to go in dissuading people to stop using pipettes as straws.

A techician mouth-pipetitng environmental water samples in Malta. Image: E Mandelmann. Source: History of Medicine

A technician mouth pipetting environmental water samples in Malta. Image: E Mandelmann. Source: History of Medicine

Mechanical manual pipettes have been a godsend to technology and the sciences, saving researchers time and resources in measuring and transferring liquids. Pipettes now serve as an icon of the scientific pursuit of knowledge – we’re all familiar with the close up of the gloved hand and pipette tip hovering over some glowing liquid. It’s banal, efficient and ubiquitous. It’s the dogged, unsung hero of the lab but there were several decades when our method of pipetting was also a microbial misadventure in the waiting.

Resources

“There are reports of laboratory infections by means of the pipette with quite a variety of microorganisms. In the intestinal group: typhoid, Shigella, salmonella, cholera; among others, anthrax, brucella, diphtheria, hemophilus iniluenzae, leptothrix, meningococcus, Streptococcus, syphilis, tularemia; among viruses, mumps, Coxsackie virus, viral hepatitis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, chikungunya, and scrub typhus.” Download this neat article on the history and epidemiology of lab-acquired infections here.

Want to see more pictures of mouth pipetting? Of course you do! I’ve been collecting them on the Body Horrors tumblr here, here, here, here and here. Here’s a sign. And here’s a riff on a meme.

References

1) AG Wedum. (1997) History and epidemiology of laboratory-acquired infections. J Am Bio Safety Assc. 2(1): 12-29

2) Phillips GB &Bailey SP (1966) Hazards of mouth pipetting. Am J Med Technol. 32(2): 127-9

3) JA Martin (April 13, 2001) The Art of the Pipette BiomedNet Magazine100

4) S Nasim et al (2012) Biosafety perspective of clinical laboratory workers: a profile of Pakistan. J Infect Dev Ctries. 6(8): 611-9

5) FO Omokhodion (1998) Health and safety in clinical laboratory practice in Ibadan, Nigeria. Afr J Med Med Sci. 27(3-4): 201-4

6)B Boyer et al (1998) The microbiology “unknown” misadventure. Am J Infect Control. 26(3):355-8

7) DL Sewel (1995) Laboratory-Associated Infections and Biosafety. Clin Micro Rev. 8(3): 389-405

ResearchBlogging.org
HILL, N. (1999). Laboratory-acquired Infections: History, Incidence, Causes and Preventions, 4th edition. Eds. C. H. Collins and D. A. Kennedy. Butterworth Heinemann, Oxford 1999. Pp. 324. ISBN 0 7506 4023 5. Epidemiology and Infection, 123 (1), 181-181 DOI: 10.1017/S0950268899002514

Adventures in Dentures: The Street Dentists, Barbers & Tattoo Artists of India

4

My father-in-law David is a dentist and he recently emailed me an astonishing, must-watch video, “The Dentist of Jaipur.” A short documentary by Falk Peplinski that made the rounds of film festivals in 2006 and 2007, the four-minute film shows two men in this famed city in Rajasthan, India practicing dentistry on the streets.

The short, jaunty film begins with the opening of a rusty toolbox containing a stained and well-used toothbrush, tweezers and assorted metal implements. Ungloved hands unload and carefully lay out tools trade on a red blanket – medicinal bottles, dentures, mouth mirrors, pliers, a spoon. One man deftly pulls the cap off of a syringe, and rubs his fingers down the needle. Those cursed, fat flies that are omnipresent in India flit through the video resting on dentures and dental molds.

A street dentist in Bangalore with sets of individual teeth and dentures in 2006. Image: Matthew Logelin, Creative Commons. You can see more of Mr. Logelin’s work at his Flickr account here.

Pushkar and Pyara Singh, otherwise known as Doc-Junior and Doc-Senior, practice their trade on a sidewalk near a pretty fuchsia bougainvillea bush outside an unidentified train station, close to a stash of rickshaws awaiting customers disgorged from the busy station. Pyara Singh earnestly tells the camera, “The only difference between the rich doctors and us is that they have fancy chairs, fan, servants, x-ray and other gadgets. They take a lot of money. Normal people can’t afford that.” 

In the film, the duo mix methyl methcrylate paste, repair and install dentures, file teeth, inject who-knows-what substances and “practice dentistry” to their best ability without gloves, face masks, autoclaves to sterilize equipment and tools, or any proper sterile technique or infection control practices out on the open street. In one viscerally tough scene, the men inject a watery rose-colored liquid into a middle-aged woman’s mouth then use pliers to wrench a tooth that’s promptly discarded for the flies on the sidewalk. The scene made me squeal in terror so, for the faint of heart, know that the scene starts at 2:52 and lasts until 3:12.

For those that aren’t familiar with the kaleidoscopic charms of India, one of the most fascinating aspects of the country is its massive street economy. You can find anything you want on the sidewalks of this country, whether it’s fried delicacies, tattoos, freshly pressed fruit juices, sex or bus tickets, you just need to know where to look. I lived in India for nine sublime months in 2007 and 2008, mainly in Mumbai and Kolkata with extensive traveling in between. I saw an enormous amount of this massive country – Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh – traveling alone on trains and buses and rickshaws and I fell deeply in love. I definitely partook in the street economy – fried food, hot chai, juice. If you can name it, I probably ate it on a street in India. Though I never saw any instances of street dentistry, barbers shaving patient men on sidewalks were a commonplace sight throughout the many cities and towns I traveled through. And many of the friends I made on my travels received haircuts and shaves from these street barbers.

In one of my more vivid memories, I saw a young man in Kolkata that was setting up a blanket and carefully laying out tools in preparation for tattooing any willing pedestrians. I remember being absolutely gobsmacked as this man noticed me stalling pedestrian traffic on the sidewalk, my jaw gaping and eyes wonderstruck, and he eagerly beckoned me to get a quick tattoo under the underpass of a bustling intersection where many buses dropped off passengers. For months I had seen hundreds of Indians sporting black and fuzzy tattoos on their inner forearms and hands, typically of the om or aum symbol that is ubiquitous in the country. This sacred syllable was spray-painted on walls, incorporated into restaurant names, depicted as glittery stickers sported on buses and trucks and sported proudly on many Hindus as a poorly drawn tattoo. You may have noticed in the “Dentist of Jaipur” that the Singh duo both sported fuzzy tattoos on their hands.

A roadside barber shaving a customer in Varanasi. Image: R Barraez D´Lucca, Creative Commons. Click to see more of D’Lucca’s work.

These types of intimate professions – dentists, barbers and tattoo artists – that practice on the streets and sidewalks of India can play a vital role in the transmission of infections in their clientele. Unsafe, communal practices with razor blades, syringes and any tools that break the skin barrier are tailor-made for the spread of bloodborne infections. These are high-risk procedures conducted in a country with staggeringly high rates of hepatitis B and C, the two most serious bloodborne infections in the hepatitis family (1). Though the Singh dentist duo are obviously fulfilling a need in the community, they’re doing it with quack science and medicine. These guys can’t possibly deliver good healthcare beyond performing primitive mechanical work. What they’re really doing is jeopardizing their clients’ health by performing medical procedures with no regard to the spread of possible infections from the environment, themselves and from their own customer’s bodies.

A few public health studies conducted in India have found that street barbers in particular are quite adept at spreading bloodborne infections. A 2010 study found that patronage of local barbers in Bangalore was a major risk factor for hepatitis B virus among blood donors; a customer that frequents barbers in this fast-moving technology hub is more than four-times more likely to carry the hepatitis B virus (2). Another study found that visits to roadside barbers was a major risk factor for hepatitis C (3). Getting tattooed in the country is also another predisposing and risky behavior (4).

“Dentist of Jaipur” points out that the dental work by the Singh duo can cost as little as  80 rupees, about $1.50 today. For most people in India that live on less than $2 a day, this is already an expensive transaction so imagine the costs of receiving care from trained professionals with, as the elder Singh puts it, “fancy chairs, fan, servants, x-ray and other gadgets (5).” Though Doc Junior compares the work they do to fixing a bike, these guys aren’t replacing a bike’s inner tube or aligning its wheels – they’re tampering with a temperamental ecosystem of bone and tooth and blood and bacteria. Whatever analogy you try to extend this to, our mouths are not anything like bikes.

The street dentists are clearly fulfilling a much-needed service but that cheap and fast procedure, whether it’s a new tooth, tattoo or clean-shaven face, comes a much greater price – gambling with one’s long-term health. So, please, reconsider that appointment you made with your local street dentist.

Resources

Infections such as hepatitis B and C may be spread at the Hajj, the annual Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca, due to the unygenic practices of street barbers that shave the faithful following the end of their pilgrimage. You can read my article about the phenomenon at Buzz Kill: Blood-Borne Disease Transmission at the Hajj.

There are SO MANY photos of street dentists on Flickr. Go here to take an Internet nosedive into this niche of street culture.

Wikipedia has a nice little article on the phenomenon of street dentists here.

References

(1) Abraham P (2012) Viral hepatitis in India. Clin Lab Med. 32(2): 159-74
(2) Jagannathan L et al (2010) Risk factors for chronic hepatitis B virus infection among blood donors in Bangalore, India. Transfus Med. 20(6): 414-20
(3) Thakral B et al. (2006) Prevalence & significance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) seropositivity in blood donors. Indian J Med Res. 124(4): 431-8
(4) Kumar A et al. (2007) Prevalence & risk factors for hepatitis C virus among pregnant women. Indian J Med Res. 126: 211-215
(5) “India – New Global Poverty Estimates“. World Bank. Accessed on February 19, 2013.

ResearchBlogging.org
Abraham, P. (2012). Viral Hepatitis in India Clinics in Laboratory Medicine, 32 (2), 159-174 DOI: 10.1016/j.cll.2012.03.003

Mardi Gras at the Leprosarium

1

Fat Tuesday is only a few days away and the residents of New Orleans are convulsing with anticipatory excitement and glee at the weekend parades, balls and crawfish boils leading to the grand finale. Mardi Gras is one of the finest celebrations in the world and what makes it particularly unique is the egalitarian nature that lies at its very heart – everyone is welcome to come witness and participate in Carnival. And for those very few who are not, Mardi Gras comes to them.

Mardi Gras celebrated at the Carville in 1957. Click for source.

Mardi Gras celebrated at the Louisiana Leper Home in Carville, Louisiana in 1957. There is little information about this image though it appears to be a procession of drumming jesters through the facility – the recreation center, most likely – during their carnival ball. Residents and staff in formalwear can be seen in the background. Click for source.

In 1894, on an abandoned sugar plantation located just outside of Baton Rouge in the small community of Carville, Louisiana, the doors to a new facility dedicated to the quarantine of leprosy were opened. Ostracized by their family and communities, men and women were shipped in barges from New Orleans along the Mississippi River to the Louisiana Leper Home where they were housed in former slave quarters (1). Some were handcuffed on the barges, forcibly exiled from their homes and families and their very lives to be imprisoned and shunned by society (2). The leprosarium would operate for over a century and serve as the last hospital in the industrialized world completely dedicated to the “treatment” of leprosy. Catholic nuns associated with the Daughters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul would serve as their caretakers.

Just as residents of Louisiana don masks and costumes to watch and revel in the sights of the parades, so too would the quarantined residents of the leprosarium. Concealing their identity and disfigurements, the leprosarium’s residents could have their own day to celebrate Mardi Gras, liberated socially and psychologically from their  disfiguring disease.

Miniature floats rode in their Krewe of Carville parade, constructed from bicycles, wheelchairs and carts scavenged throughout the facility. The King and Queen of Mardi Gras were elected yearly and announced at the carnival ball. In 1995, an observer of the Carville festivities wrote that the doubloons – collectible aluminium coins specific to each Krewe –  were imprinted with the outline of an armadillo, the animal now known as the natural reservoir of Mycobacterium leprae, the bacteria that causes leprosy (1).

The Queen and King of Mardi Gras in 1998 at the Louisiana Leper Home. At that time, the facility had been renamed  the Gillis W. Long Hansen’s Disease Center. Photo: Jeffrey Braverman. Source: M. Gaudet. (2004) Carville: Remembering Leprosy In America. Univ. Press of MississippiPg 139.

The Queen and King of Mardi Gras in 1998 at the Louisiana Leper Home. At that time, the facility had been renamed the Gillis W. Long Hansen’s Disease Center. Photo: Jeffrey Braverman. Source: M. Gaudet. (2004) Carville: Remembering Leprosy In America. University Press of Mississippi.

In her wonderful essay on Mardi Gras at the leprosarium, Marcia Gaudet writes,

Mardi Gras for the Krewe of Carville follows the general structure of urban Mardi Gras celebration in Louisiana, with costumes and masks, a parade with music, food and drink, favors or tokens being thrown or begged for, general revelry, role reversal, and symbolic inversion. It is unique, however, in that the participants are residents or staff members of the Gillis W. Long Hansen’s Disease Center.

To act carnivalesque is to be allowed to be ‘abnormal’ for a while. paradoxically, to celebrate Mardi Gras, like any other masquerade holidays, is normative – it is not only allowable but even expected that one will participate in the seasonal customs. Thus, for people who are already stigmatized as ‘abnormal’ in society, the masks and the occasion allow an opportunity to engage in normative behavior, to act “‘normal.’ (1)

In 1999, the facility closed its doors to receiving resident patients, though a few long-term patients remain on the site out of comfort and security after the many decades of quarantine on the site. The facility now serves as a museum and a research center for leprosy, its masques, balls and floats no more than echoes in the past.

Resources

A heartbreaking article from the New York Times, “Both Home and Prison, Leprosy Site May Shut” on the closure of the facility.

The website for the National Hnsen’s Disease Museum currently operated by the US Department of Health and Human Services. I went to the museum a few years ago and loved it!

Note: A big thank you to Rosemarie Robertson at the Louisiana Office of Public Health for the Mardi Gras picture of parading drummers!

References

Louisiana Office of Public Health (July-August 2003) Carville: The Gillis W. Long Hansen’s Disease Center. Louisiana Morbidity Report. 14(4): 3

(1) M Gaudet. (1998) The world downside up: Mardi Gras at Carville. J American Folklore. 111(439): 23-38

(2) S Jauhar (June 23, 1998) Both Home and Prison, Leprosy Site May Shut. The New York Times [Online]. Accessed on February 8, 2013 here.

ResearchBlogging.org
Gaudet, M. (1998). The World Downside Up: Mardi Gras at Carville The Journal of American Folklore, 111 (439) DOI: 10.2307/541318